Lesson 1: What is the internet?
The internet is a global network of interconnected computer networks. It consists of millions of computers, servers, routers, and other devices that communicate with each other using a common set of protocols. The internet allows users to share information, communicate with each other, and access various services and applications.
Lesson 2: How do computers communicate on the internet?
Computers communicate on the internet using the Internet Protocol (IP). Every device on the internet has a unique IP address, which is a series of numbers separated by dots (e.g. 192.168.0.1). When you send a message or request information on the internet, your computer sends packets of data to the destination computer’s IP address. These packets may pass through many routers and networks before they reach their destination.
Lesson 3: What are the main components of the internet?
The internet has several key components that work together to make it function, including:
- Internet Service Providers (ISPs): Companies that provide internet access to users. They offer various types of connections, such as DSL, cable, and fiber-optic.
- Routers: Devices that direct data packets between networks. They use complex algorithms to find the most efficient path for each packet to reach its destination.
- Domain Name System (DNS): A system that translates domain names (e.g. www.google.com) into IP addresses. This allows users to access websites using easy-to-remember names instead of numeric IP addresses.
- Web servers: Computers that store and serve web pages to users. They use web server software to process requests from clients and deliver web pages back to them.
- Clients: Devices (such as computers and smartphones) that request and display web pages. They use web browsers to access web pages and display their content.
Lesson 4: How do websites work?
Websites are collections of web pages that are stored on web servers. When you type a website’s address into your web browser, your browser sends a request to the web server for the page you want to see. The server then sends the page back to your browser, which displays it on your screen. Websites can contain a variety of content, such as text, images, videos, and interactive elements like forms and buttons.
Lesson 5: What are some common internet protocols?
The internet uses several protocols to facilitate communication between devices. Some common protocols include:
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A protocol used for transmitting web pages over the internet. It allows clients to request web pages from servers and for servers to respond with the requested pages.
- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A protocol that ensures reliable transmission of data between devices. It breaks data into smaller packets and reassembles them at the destination to ensure that all the data is received.
- Internet Protocol (IP): A protocol that defines how data is sent between devices on the internet. It provides the addressing and routing information necessary for packets to be transmitted across the internet.
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP): A protocol used for transferring files between computers on the internet. It allows users to upload and download files from remote servers.
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A protocol used for sending and receiving email messages. It defines how email messages are sent from one email server to another.